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住在天坑里的人家A home in Tiankeng, Xiaozhai Village, Fengjie County, Chongqing Municipality  

2017-04-28 11:35:03|  分类: 山水风光 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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重庆奉节天坑位于奉节县荆竹乡小寨村,天坑口部直径622米,坑底最大直径522米,坑底至天坑顶部垂直高度666.2米,属于双层嵌套天坑结构,是世界上深度和容积最大的喀斯特岩溶漏斗。天坑口四面绝壁,坑底有两个幽深莫测的洞穴和一条暗河。当地村民说,这条暗河来自离天坑不远的地缝。坑壁有两级台地,分布在天坑的300米和400米处。

The Fengjie Sinkhole is located in Xiaozhai Village, Jingzhu Township, Fengjie County, Chongqing. The sinkhole has a diameter of 622 m, a depth of 522 m below ground, with the greatest difference between the rim and base being 666.2 m. Its structure is classified as a double-layered embedded sinkhole, and it is the both the deepest and largest karst funnel in the world. The sinkhole is lined by steep cliffs on all sides, and within the sinkhole there are two very deep caves and an underground river. The locals say that the river comes from tectonic fissure not far from the sinkhole. There are two levels of terrace along the walls of the sinkhole, at the respective depths of 300 and 400 m.

天坑里面住有人家,听起来有些不可思议,可就是有这么一家人在天坑300米处的台地上生活了20多年。天坑里的这处台地宽2至10米,刘建和他老婆李国群就住在这个天坑中间的台地上。

What baffles me most is that someone actually lives inside this sinkhole. A couple named Liu Jian and Li Guoqun have lived on the terrace 300 m down the sinkhole for more than 20 years. The terrace is 2 to 10 m wide, upon which they built their house.

住在天坑里 人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客

2013年12月20日,我和刘建约好拍摄他们在天坑的家。  

A photographer friend of mine from Yichang gives me their phone number. I call Liu Jian and he agrees to let me do a shoot of their home on December 20, 2013.

宜昌的摄影师李丰给了我他们家的电话。2013年12月20日我和刘建约好拍摄他们的家。

从宜昌乘船沿长江三峡上行6个小时才到奉节县城。第二天上午我来到天坑,这么大的天坑让我感到震撼。我下到天坑中间,在一个洞穴里找到了刘建,他是天坑人家的男主人。刘建带着我来到他的家。刘建一家人就住在天坑深处400米的台地上。台地像一根皮带束在天坑的腰上,把天坑的直径收缩了一圈,刘建的家就建在靠外的台阶上。一个用石头垒成的小房子有30多平方米,被分隔成两间,里面的一间是他们夫妻的住房。外面的一间做了小卖部,卖一些矿泉水和饮料。斜坡状的台地上面还建有一个公厕,是方便日常生活用的。我们去的时候刘建的老婆李国群正在做午饭。在这块台地上,他们夫妻还开垦出来两块菜地,每块也就是五、六平方米,种植了一些的青菜,李国群把青菜放入锅里,于是天坑的午餐便增添了几分颜色。 

From Yichang I take a boat down the Long River, through the Three Gorges, a trip which takes six hours before I arrive at the county center of Fengjie. The following morning I come to the sinkhole, which is absolutely stunning to see first-hand. I make my way down the sinkhole, and find Liu Jian, who takes me to his home inside. The terrace 400 m underground forms a belt around the perimeter of the sinkhole, tapering the diameter. The terrace is sloped, and on it there are steps, where Liu Jian’s home is located, next to which there is even a public washroom. Their home is about 30 m2, containing two rooms, the inner one their living quarters. The outer room has been fashioned into a small shop, where passersby can purchase beverages and snacks. When I arrive, his wife Li Guoqun is cooking. On the terrace they have gone so far as to create a small garden, about 10 m2 in size, where they grow some green vegetables.

顺着这块台地,刘建带着我去看原先居住在这里的人留下的遗址。1987年之前,台地的一个崖壁下住了两户人家,一家主人叫许本高,另一家主人叫杜文志。他们两家是什么时候开始在这里居住的,没有人记得清楚,天坑崖壁上熏黑的烟火遗迹有近十米高、十米宽,这样重的烟熏痕迹估计要有两代以上的人居住才能留下。在崖壁下的房子里还留有一口水井和一口存放粮食的地窖。刘建说在人民公社时期这两家人还在这里居住种植魔芋,那时候人民公社有规定,但是在天坑里种地不容易,收获的粮食可以不交给公家,谁家种就归谁。1988年后,天坑被世人发现报道后政府要开发旅游,这两家人才陆续搬了出去。

Liu Jian leads me along the terrace to the remnants of the first homes that were built here, of which there are two, respectively constructed by the families of Xu Bengao and Du Wenzhi. They both lived here until 1987, and no one is sure exactly when they were built, but from the long and heavy smoke stains on the side of the cave wall, it’s likely that they were here for at least two generations. The houses are equipped with a shared well and grain storehouse. Liu Jian tells me that during the People’s Commune era (1958 – 1983), these two families grew konjac (a type of yam), and according to commune regulations at the time everyone had to hand their crops to the government to then be allotted to the people, but since they faced the challenge of growing crops underground, they could keep what they grew for themselves. Then in 1988, when the sinkhole was discovered and reported by the media, the government decided to develop tourism here, and the two families eventually moved out.

不下到的天坑底部,就不会看到这里还有一座水文站。刘建的工作就是在这里观测地下河水位,为天坑之外的小寨水电站提供水文信息。1989年,天坑被发现之后,由于有充沛的地下河水,当地水利部门在天坑底部北面凿通了一条长1821米的隧洞,引出地下河水,在天坑下游建立了一座装机容量1.89万千瓦的水电站。

But without venturing down to the bottom of the 666.2 m deep sinkhole, you won’t get a chance to see the hydrologic station there. Liu Jian’s main job is to take readings of the underground river level, and report the data to the Xiaozhai hydroelectric plant. When the sinkhole was discovered in 1989, since it possessed ample underground water resources, the local waterworks department created a tunnel from the north side; the tunnel is 1821 m long, and diverts the water from the underwater river to the hydroelectric plant, which has a capacity of 18,900 kW.

刘建和老婆在1991年开始搬到天坑里面居住,在这个水电站工作,而且一住就是20多年。每个月水电站给刘建开500元钱的工资。1999年县政府开发天坑后刘建又在天坑景区做了一份清洁工作,天坑景区每个月给他开700元钱的工资。老婆李国群在自家的小卖部卖一些水和食品,供应来此观光的游客。夫妻两人每年收入三、四万元钱。他们家在兴隆镇还有一个房子,女儿经营着一家美容店。当地政府正在打造旅游新城,他们家的土地已经被征收,家里已经没有土地。

Liu Jian and his wife moved into the sinkhole to begin working for the hydroelectric plant in 1991, and have lived there now for more than two decades. The plant pays Liu Jian a monthly salary of 500 yuan. Beginning in 1999, when the sinkhole became open to visitors, Liu Jian picked up another job cleaning in the tourism area, for which he received 700 yuan a month. Now his wife runs a small shop inside the sinkhole, where they sell drinks and snacks to tourists. Together they can bring in about 30-40,000 yuan per year. They also have a house in their hometown Xinglong Town, where their daughter runs a beauty salon. But the local government there is creating a new tourism area, so the property of their home has been levied, and they no longer have any land.

拍摄的时候,刘建打电话把镇上的女儿叫了回来,儿子因为在上课不能回来。刘建不想为此事耽误孩子的学业,毕竟孩子是家里的希望。

While shooting, Liu Jian calls their daughter to join the photo, but their son has class and is unable to make it.

住在天坑里 人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
重庆奉节小寨天坑从空中看很是壮观,天坑的形成和喀斯特地貌有着密切的关系
住在天坑里 人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
刘建一家就住在天坑中间的这块台地上,身后的小房子就是他们夫妻二人住的地方,女儿在县城居住
住在天坑里 人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
这是刘建在台地上开垦出来的一片菜地,种植一些白菜、青菜 
住在天坑里 人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
小寨天坑现在是一个景区,刘建还要负责捡拾游客扔在天坑内的垃圾和饮料瓶,这是他的工作之一 
住在天坑里 人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
刘建带着我去天坑台地上寻找以前在这里居住的人家留下的遗迹。这是一口渗出的水源
住在天坑里 人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
刘建说在人民公社时期这两家人还在这里居住种植魔芋,这是存放魔芋的地窖
住在天坑里 人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
1988年后,这家人才搬出天坑,以前在这里居住的二位老人已经陆续去世 
住在天坑里 人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
利用天坑的崖壁,很容易在这里建筑一件简易的房子,天坑里没有大风大雨的侵袭,到有有一种室外桃源的感觉 
住在天坑里 人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
在巨大的天坑里,人显得如此渺小 
住在天坑里 人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
这个石臼有多少年的历史刘建也说不出来,这是以前在这里居住的人在钟乳石凿出来的,用来棰米用
住在天坑里 人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
每天简单的饭菜是夫妻二人的家常饭
住在天坑里 人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
这间十平方的地方就是刘建夫妻二人的居住地,除了二张床就只有一些简单的家具
住在天坑里 人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
天坑底部修建了一座装机容量1.89万千瓦的水电站,刘建的工作还要看管水电站的水文流量
住在天坑里 人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
1989年,天坑里由于有充沛的地下河水,当地水利部门在天坑底部北面凿通了一条长1821米的隧洞,引地下河水发电住在天坑里 人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
在天坑底部的地下河里,刘建发现了一些稀有的物种,全身透明的“盲鱼” 
住在天坑里 人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
从天坑底部仰望这个垂直高度666.2米巨型大坑
住在天坑里 人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
刘建夫妻的女儿露露,我们称她为“小寨公主”
住在天坑里 人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
刘建一家三口,他们还有一个儿子因为上学没有回来
住在天坑里 人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
 夜色中才能在这个巨大的天坑中看到刘建家发出的微弱灯光,才知道这里有人居住
  评论这张
 
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